Dating an infected partner with herpes
Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells.HIV infects vital cells in the human immune system such as helper T cells (specifically CD4 Lentiviruses have many morphologies and biological properties in common.The viral envelope contains proteins from the host cell and relatively few copies of the HIV Envelope protein, The Envelope protein, encoded by the HIV env gene, allows the virus to attach to target cells and fuse the viral envelope with the target cell's membrane releasing the viral contents into the cell and initiating the infectious cycle.Over half of the mass of the trimeric envelope spike is N-linked glycans.AIDS is a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive.Without treatment, average survival time after infection with HIV is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV subtype.A matrix composed of the viral protein p17 surrounds the capsid ensuring the integrity of the virion particle.This is, in turn, surrounded by the viral envelope, that is composed of the lipid bilayer taken from the membrane of a human host cell when the newly formed virus particle buds from the cell.
The single-stranded RNA is tightly bound to nucleocapsid proteins, p7, and enzymes needed for the development of the virion such as reverse transcriptase, proteases, ribonuclease and integrase.
The Vif protein (p23) prevents the action of APOBEC3G (a cellular protein that deaminates Cytidine to Uridine in the single stranded viral DNA and/or interferes with reverse transcription The ends of each strand of HIV RNA contain an RNA sequence called the long terminal repeat (LTR).
Regions in the LTR act as switches to control production of new viruses and can be triggered by proteins from either HIV or the host cell.
The Psi element is involved in viral genome packaging and recognized by Gag and Rev proteins.
The SLIP element (TTTTTT) is involved in the frameshift in the Gag-Pol reading frame required to make functional Pol.